Emily Ungerer

I am Emily Ungerer and I am thinking about pursuing the topic of Universal Health screen-shot-2017-02-21-at-10-49-48-am Coverage. I have been interested in this topic because recently in my Global Health Issues Class we have been discussing other countries healthcare system and compared those to the United States. Healthcare is often discussed within the U.S. as there are several sides to talk about and with the recent election there have even been more points discussed. Overall, I want to pick one of the main topics discussed

img_5629with the U.S. health system which is Universal Coverage.

For over the next month, this is my plan on how I want to accomplish the paper about Universal Coverage.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Position Paper 

Part One 

Being a teenager many might wonder why I am worrying about the topic of Universal Health Insurance. In the future I aspire to be a healthcare professional. While pursuing my desired profession I have taken classes dealing with global and local issues, and a very controversial issue is about Health Insurance Coverage for all. I acknowledge the fact I believe that health care is a right that should be available to all. Growing up in a middle class society and a mother that works for a hospital, I realize my basis that I believe quality health care is important and everyone should want it.  Nevertheless, I will recognize the fact that some people have the option to opt out of insurance. I will also explore the other consequences of having universal health insurance.

Part Two 

In March of 2010 The patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, also known as Affordable Care act, or even Obamacare was created. The mission of the act is to protect the patient, make insurance more affordable, as well as tackling other issues with education, student aid, food, drug, and cosmetics. Since it became a law, there have been additional information added as well as in the future there is thought to have new rules and regulations.

Lyndon B. Johnson in 1965 signed a bill that created Medicare and Medicad. For medicare there are four specific parts it can cover: hospital insurance, medical insurance, privatized insurance, and prescription drug coverage. Overall Medicare is a national, administered health insurance program for those who are 65 and older, people with End-Stage Renal Disease, and some  young people with disabilities. The main goal is to assist with insurance and healthcare expenses. On the other hand Medicad was and still is a state-funded healthcare program that assist people who do not have the resources or accessibility to pay for health care.

A deductible is the amount of money that the insurer pays before their insurance will help.

The premium is the price of insurance for a specified time or risk.

Universal Health Coverage is a health care system that provides health care and financial assistance to all citizens or people the country specifies. The end goal is to provide improved health services while decreasing the financial burden. Universal health is not fit every country, but is determined by three factors: who  is covered, services covered, and how much of the services are covered.

Part Three 

It is no shocker that the United States healthcare system is suffering. While having a $2.7 trillion collective medical bill the main topic of discussion is what is next for the United States health care system (“The Health Care Waiting Game” par. 1). With the increasing demand for health services mixing with increasing cost of these services a solution is in necessity for American citizens. With the Affordable Care Act, commonly known as Obamacare, recently being discussed with a new political party in office, the reprimands of the act and the possible future is in consideration. A popular case for United States healthcare is Universal Coverage. Many scholars and researchers have disputed Universal Coverage for several reasons: cost, wait times; and the disapproval of Obamacare. Health Insurance is important and is worthy of discussion because most people need continuous care to maintain a healthy lifestyle. As well as when there is unexpected health issues, health insurance can assist in decreasing the financial burden.

Since the United States medical costs are increasing at alarming rates, it would be natural for people to be concerned on how much it would cost America to switch to Universal Coverage. Ryan Whitacker, a analyst, developer, and consultant of several political organization and nonprofits recently analyzed how much it would really cost. Overall there would need too be an additional $562 billion in taxation to cover government spending since the demand for healthcare would increase when there are lower costs. It is found that people without insurance spend half of those who are insured, therefore they would spend double if they received insurance. Likewise, the 32 million Americans who are uninsured today, receive insurance that alone would increase spending by about 11.8 million dollars (Whitacker par. 19 & 20). Micheal Tanner, a Cato Institute researcher that explores social welfare policy, health care reforms, and social security issues occurring. Michael agrees with Whitacker in the aspect that the cost of switching to Universal Coverage would not be economically feasible for the United States. While observing other countries in Europe that maintain a single-payer healthcare system that supplies insurance to all citizens, he has found that the countries are giving the insurance companies more control to create competition to lower the cost of services (Tanner par. 9).

Other countries, like Canada who are not loosening government control over insurance policies are finding that while trying to solve the problems of costs, they are seeing issues with delay of care (Tanner par. 8). Canadian healthcare is often compared to the United States as they border America and as they occupy the Universal Coverage policy. Like Whitacker previously stated about demand of services when prices lower, Canada found their government spending sky rocketing. They then attempted to regulate the uses of medical facilities which produced long waiting list. This eventually effected diagnostic equipment as the budgeting process cut the use of expensive equipment. For comparison purposes, in Seattle there are more CAT scanners with a population of 490,000 people then there are in British Columbia who has a population of 3 million (Canada’s Healthcare System” par. 4 & 5). Waiting for medical services is becoming normal for countries that have Universal Coverage. People could wait four to six months for a knee replacement ( “Long Waits”  par. 8). Overall, Michael Walker of Fraser Institute located in Vancouver, Canada, believes that Americans know little about really occurs with Universal Coverage. He states, “When Americans say they would prefer the Canadian system, their statement is based on little knowledge of how he system actually works” (“Canada’s Healthcare System” par. 8).  The lack of awareness and ability to understand healthcare and insurance is also why others believe universal coverage is not the route for the U.S.

The Affordable Care Act, also known is Obamacare, is used as a comparison and example of inadequate education about health insurance. The goal of the act was to provide insurance to the uninsured or under-insured. Since the bill was singed in 2010 there has been several updates and regulations that people who are under Obamacare find hard to follow  “Sorry, We Don’t Take Obamacare” par. 4). For instance, if an individual is not covered by the employer, but not poor enough to qualify for Medicad, they are required to purchase private insurance and if they do not they have to pay a penalty (Rice par. 12).  In general, Thomas Rice, author for Bulletin of the World Organization states, “Perhaps the major challenge facing the ACA in the coming years can be traced back to the utter lack of crossparty political consensus” (Rice et al. par. 32). Obamacare is often talked about as an attempt to universal coverage that failed which has made others feel uneasy about the transformation to universal coverage.

  There are several reasons to why the United States has not adopted the Universal Coverage method, but what if those reasons be resolved? What would America look like then? Imagine a country where parents do not have to worry about how much it costs to let their children receive life saving treatment, or saving millions of citizens from going bankrupt. Is cost and wait lines fixable, or is the future of our healthcare in doom? Like anything there are two sides to every situation, thats why there the democrats and the republicans, but in time and need shouldn’t those two sides join as one for the greater of good? United States healthcare is suffering and needs a resolution.

 

Work Cited

“Canada’s Healthcare System Bad Model for United States to Follow.”Hospital Topics, vol. 68, no. 2, Spring1990, p. 44. EBSCOhost,

Rice, Thomas, et al. “Challenges Facing the United States of America in Implementing Universal Coverage.” [“Desafíos a los que se enfrentan los Estados Unidos de América en la implementación de la cobertura universal”]. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 92, no. 12, Dec. 2014, p. 894. EBSCOhost, doi:10.2471/BLT.14.141762.

Rosenthal, Elisabeth. “Long Waits for Doctors’ Appointments Have Become the Norm.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 05 July 2014. Web. 01 Mar. 2017.

Rosenthal, Elisabeth. “Sorry, We Don’t Take Obamacare.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 14 May 2016. Web. 1 Mar. 2017.

Tanner This Article Appeared in The Bulletin on February 23, 2009, Michael D. “Universal Health Care Not Best Option.” Cato Institute. The Bulletin, 23 Feb. 2009. Web. 25 Feb. 2017.

Whitacker, Ryan. “How Much Universal Healthcare Would Cost in the US.” Decision Data. Decision Data, 11 Nov. 2015. Web. 27 Feb. 2017.

Part Four 

With the recent presidential campaign it is a time of discussing important national and global issues.  Issues like global warming, racial equality, national security, and at the top of the list, healthcare. Healthcare deserves the attention it is receiving because having better health is commonly linked to a higher chance of success, happiness, and overall well being (“Health and development” par. 1).

Presently healthcare cost are rising and fiancial insecurities are occuring from high medical bills, a socialist healthcare ideology is a hot commodity in today’s world. In America, the world “socialist” contains a negative connotation, therefore Universal healthcare is how it is oftenly referred to. The World Health Organization, commonly known as the WHO, whose main intent is to address interantional health issues among the United Nations and other global partners, has recently defined Universal healthcare. They defined it as a system that decreases the financial debt that comes from paying out of pocket for medical services. What Universal healthcare is not, is free coverage for all medical care. WHO refers to it being urnreasonable for any country to be able to provide all services free from charge regularly. As well as Unversial coverage is not just about the financial stability, it is about accessiblilty, advancements, education, and protection (“Universal health coverage” par. 4,6).

Now, with a clear understanding of what Universal coverage is, it is effortless to compare other countries that have adapted Universal coverage into their healthcare system to the United States. Looking globally, according to the Naitonal Center for Health, in 2015 1 in 10 Americans lacked health insurence. Overall 28.6 million were uninsured, this number actually has decreased 7.4 million from the year before with correlation to the Affordable Care Act (Cohen et al. par. 2) Stated by the National Immigration Law Center, the United States main priority should be on those who do not have coverage because their health suffers the most. It has been found that there is a 25 percent increase in premature death for adults that are unisured. To be exact, The Institutde of Medicine found that in 2000, there were 18,000 deaths of American adults that could have been prevented with having insurence. Many people who are uninsured avoid or put off seeking medical care because they are not able to pay for expenses. This causes people to wait till the last possible moment to reach out for treamtent. This increases the complications and suffering for many. This can correlate to those who have contracted a sexually transmitted disease may not know since they have not been diagnosed and then tramsit the disease to others  (“The Consequences of Being Uninsured par. 4, 10).  So far, having insurance seems pretty imporant and feasable compared to the effects from being unisured, correct? Well some say being insured in the United States is just as worse as being uninsured.

The New York Times and the Kaiser Family Foundation recently conducted a poll of American citizens investigating financial situations for those who have health insurance. It found that 20 percent of people under 65 are having problems paying medical bills. From those who are insured, 63 percent they have used up all or almost all of their savings in attempt to pay of their bills (Sanger-Katz). In comparison to other countries that have Universal coverage like Canada, Britain, Australia, Germany, Sweden, and Switzerland, the United States spends the most per person, but fails to deliver accessible and affordable care. According to a recent study published by NBC, but conducted by Commonwealth fund which routinely researches healthcare in pursuit to deliver equality care,found the U.S. spends on average $9,523 per person and 3 trillion a year. This is the most among any developed country. In the U.S. it is found 43 percent of low-income Americans are going without insurance because of the expensive costs. In other social healthcares, like Britain average around 8 percent of low-income families who deny insurance. It has been discussed that Universal coverage has helped developed countries, but many question about the impact it has on poverty stricken countries.

In current news released by Harvard health, UHC is improving econonmic and social oportunities. This is confirmed when looking at countries like Thailand and Rwanda. For the country of Thailand, before UHC was implicated, only a small population was recieving coverage. This small percent was mostly government officals that could afford the cost of insurance. In 2001, the government put into place an insurance plan that covered all citiznes and had a fixed price point that citizens would not have to pay with an excpetion to poorer sections of the country. The result was astounding. Infant and child mortaily was at an all time low, life exectancy rose, and the health gap between the rich and poor has decreased. In Rwanada the results were similar to those of Thailand. After recovering from the devestations from the genocide in 1994, the country estabilished healthcare for all. Premature death decreased and life expetacny doubled. Paul Farmer and Agnes Binagwaho, US. medical anthropologist and Rwandan minsiter of health, perfectly describe the advancements UHC can provide to underdeveloped countries when they said, “Investing in health has stimulated shared economic growth as citizens live longer and with greater capacity to pursue the lives they value” (Sen and Lamount par. 3,6,7).

In additoin Donald Hirasuana, a Legistalative Anaylst, and two Professors of Economics at Harvard University, Amaryta Sen and Thomas Lamount, discussed the overall benefits of Universal healthcare. Sen and Lamoundt state that Universal healthcare decreases the chance for those who are financial vulnerable to be forced to pay for medical services that are out of their means (par. 24).  Likewise, Lamount agreed that Universial healthcare coverage is reasonable for all. As well as it makes hospitals pay less since they will no longer have to cover the fees of the unisured they treat in the emergency room (par. 19).

In sum, it is equally important to understand that having access to healthcare is a basic human right that all deserve. It should not be based on income or social status, but on the fact that everyone is human and should be treated as one. Universal healthcare is shamed by medical business and ideologues who want the government to be out of their life, but shouldn’t the concern be about the accessibility of affordability of maintaining one’s health rather than keeping the government out of citizens lives? Universal healthcare is a way to give everyone access they deserve, but the United States still denies healthcare for all. Amaryta Sen and Thomas Lamount put Universal healthcare into perspective when they published, “It is one thing to accept that the world may not have the resources and dexterity at this moment to provide the finest of medical care to all, but that is not a reason for eliminating our search for ways of proceeding towards just that, nor a ground for refusing to provide whatever can be easily provided right now” (par. 22).

Work Cited

Cohen, Robin A., Michael E. Martinez, and Emily P. Zammitti. “Health Insurance Coverage: Early Release of Estimates From the National Health Interview Survey, 2015.” (n.d.): n. pag. National Health Interview Survey Early Release Program. Center for Disease Control and Prevention, May 2016. Web. 6 Mar. 2017.

Fox, Maggie. “United States Come in Last Again on Health, Compared to Other Countries.”NBCNews.com. NBCUniversal News Group, 16 Nov. 2016. Web. 06 Mar. 2017.

“Health and Development.” World Health Organization. World Health Organization, 2017. Web. 06 Mar. 2017.

Sanger-Katz, Margot. “Even Insured Can Face Crushing Medical Debt, Study Finds.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 05 Jan. 2016. Web. 06 Mar. 2017.

Sen, Amartya, and Thomas W. Lamount. “Harvard Public Health Review.” Universal Health Care: The Affordable Dream | Harvard Public Health Review. Harvard Public Health, 2015. Web. 5 Mar. 2017.

“The Consequences of Being Uninsured.” (n.d.): n. pag. National Immigration Law Center. National Immigration Law Center, Aug. 2014. Web. 6 Mar. 2017.

“Universal Health Coverage (UHC).” World Health Organization. World Health Organization, Dec. 2016. Web. 05 Mar. 2017.

Position Paper (Final)

Emily Ungerer

Ms. Armstrong

English 110

23 March 2017

Suffocation from United States Healthcare   

In 2007, a seventeen-year-old girl named Natline Sarkisyan was on her deathbed. Her leukemia had caused her liver to fail and in a matter of days, she would be dead. If she received a liver she would have a 65 percent chance of survival. A few days later, an almost perfect liver was found, but there was one thing in the way: Cigna. Cigna, Natline’s insurance company, initially denied the request to cover the cost of surgery because it was “experimental” and “unproven” to be successful despite physicians appeal (Chen). Sadly, this occurs across the country. Healthcare and health insurance is grasping the United States by the neck, and people are continually choking.

Presently healthcare costs are rising and financial insecurities are occurring from high medical bills. Immense medical costs are not the only problem with America’s current healthcare system. United States Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services National Health Expenditure’s report for 2015 found that healthcare spending has increased almost six percent from 2014. Overall reaching $3.2 trillion a year, or $9,990 per person. In addition, the U.S. economy spends almost eighteen percent of the national gross income on healthcare (“National”). One would think spending a great deal on healthcare would be beneficial, but for how much is being spent, the overall health of the country is poor.

The Commonwealth Fund and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development recently conducted an analysis about healthcare spending from thirteen high-income countries: Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the United States. In comparison, the U.S. has the lowest life expectancy, highest infant mortality, highest prevalence of chronic diseases, highest obesity rate, and highest amount of uninsured. And most importantly, out of the thirteen countries, the United States is the only one that does provide Universal Health Coverage (Squires and Anderson). Universal Health Coverage, also known as Universal Coverage, is a method that allows all people to use medical services that are necessary to be effective while ensuring no financial burden (“Universal”). Additionally, according to the study Americans are getting less, but spending more. Americans have fewer hospital visits while spending and consuming the most amount of prescription drugs. They spend twice as much on them compared to the U.K., Australia, and Canada (“U.S.”).

Another healthcare tragedy that occurs in the United States is bankruptcy due medical bills. Many Americans know this all too well as sixty percent of personal bankruptcies are from the inability to pay for medical expenses (Sack). Take Barbara Radley for instance. A fifty-eight year old from Oshkosh, Wisconsin. After five herniated disks and a damaged liver, she’s drowning in bills. At the same time, her husband’s company changed to a health insurance plan that increased their monthly payments to $700 and a higher co-pay of $5,000 (Kodjak). Unfortunately, this is not uncommon according to The Kaiser Foundation. A Harvard researcher found that in 2015 there has been an increase in the annual health insurance plans (“2015”). The Kaiser Family Foundation also teamed up with The New York Times to investigate financial situations for those who have health insurance. They found that 20 percent of people under 65 are having problems paying medical bills. From those who are insured, 63 percent say they have used up all or almost all of their savings in attempt to pay off their debt (Sanger-Katz). The Covington family knows this too well; “we beat the economy, but health care beat us” Wes Covington says, referring to the the 2008 Recession his family survived, but the later fertility treatments that caused their bankruptcy (Sack).

It is evident that having insurance in America can be financially difficult, but according to the National Immigration Law Center, the United States’ main priority should be on covering the uninsured. Overall, 28 million Americans are uninsured and they have a 25 percent increase in premature death. To be exact, The Institute of Medicine found that in 2000, there were 18,000 Americans whose death could have been prevented with having health insurance. Many people who are uninsured avoid or put off seeking medical care because they are not able to pay. As a result, people wait until the last possible moment to reach out for treatment. This increases the complications and money spent trying to cure the progressive illness (“Consequences”).

With glaring evidence that highlights the weaknesses of the United States healthcare, many ponder the possible resolutions. In 1978, the World Health Organization created a constitute declaring healthcare as a fundamental right for all and created Universal Health Care (UHC). UHC represents accessibility, quality, and protection against financial-risk. In general, UHC means all people of all communities can use the health services they need in an effective and cost friendly way. What Universal Health Coverage is not, is free coverage for all medical care (“Universal”). In other countries, UHC is making phenomenal progress.

In current news released by Harvard health, UHC is improving economic and social opportunities. This is confirmed when looking at countries such as Thailand and Rwanda. For the country of Thailand, before UHC was implicated, only a small population was receiving coverage. This small percent was mostly government officials that could afford the cost of insurance. In 2001, the government put into place an insurance plan that covered all citizens and had a fixed price point that citizens would have to pay with an exception to the impoverished. The result was astounding. Infant and child mortality was at an all time low, life expectancy rose, and the health gap between the rich and poor decreased. In Rwanda the results were similar to those of Thailand. After recovering from the devastation from the genocide in 1994, the country established UHC. Premature death decreased and life expectancy doubled. Paul Farmer, U.S. medical anthropologist, and Agnes Binagwaho, a Rwandan minister of health, perfectly describe the advancements UHC can provide to underdeveloped countries when they said, “Investing in health has stimulated shared economic growth as citizens live longer and with greater capacity to pursue the lives they value” (Sen and Lamount).

In addition Donald Hirasuana, a legislative analyst, and two professors of Economics at Harvard University, Amaryta Sen and Thomas Lamount, discussed the overall benefits of Universal Coverage. Sen and Lamount state that Universal healthcare decreases the chance for those who are financially vulnerable to be forced to pay for medical services that are out of their means. Likewise, Lamount agreed that Universal healthcare coverage is reasonable for all. Also, it benefits hopstials as they would pay less since they will no longer have to cover the fees of the uninsured patients they treat.

On the contrary, Universal healthcare sounds favorable, but many say there’s more to it. Many scholars and researchers have disputed Universal Coverage for expenses and wait times. Since the United States’ medical costs are increasing at alarming rates, it would be natural for people to be concerned on how much it would cost America to switch to Universal Coverage. Ryan Whitacker, an analyst, developer, and consultant of several political organization and nonprofits recently analyzed how much it would really cost. Overall there would need to be an additional $562 billion in taxation to cover government spending. It is found that people without insurance spend half of those who are insured, therefore they would spend double if they received insurance. Micheal Tanner, a Cato Institute researcher that explores social welfare policy, health care reforms, and social security issues occurring agrees with Whitacker. He too believes the cost of switching to Universal Coverage would not be economically feasible for the United States. While observing other countries in Europe that are conquering a surge in expenses, Tanner has found that the countries are giving the insurance companies more control to create competitive prices.

Other countries, like Canada who are not loosening government control over insurance policies are finding that while trying to solve the problems of costs, they are seeing issues with delay of care (Tanner). Canadian healthcare is often compared to the United States as they border America and occupy Universal Health Coverage policy. Like Whitacker previously stated about demand of services when prices lower, Canada found their government spending sky rocketing. They then attempted to regulate the uses of medical facilities which produced long waiting list. This eventually effected diagnostic equipment as the budgeting process cut the use of expensive equipment. For comparison purposes, in Seattle there are more CAT scanners with a population of 490,000 people then there are in British Columbia who has a population of 3 million. Overall, Michael Walker of Fraser Institute located in Vancouver, Canada, believes that Americans know little about really occurs with Universal Coverage. He states, “When Americans say they would prefer the Canadian system, their statement is based on little knowledge of how the system actually works” (“Canada’s” 44).

Cost and wait lines are the major concern for the United States switching to the Universal Coverage system. A solution to the concerns is reflecting on the several successful countries that are continually progressing from Universal Health Coverage. While reviewing other countries policies, one would hope the United States could be able to examine the benefits of Universal Health Coverage and construct a similar plan.

In Sweden the cost for healthcare is shared by the central, local, and regional government organizations. Each level of government is responsible for a certain part of healthcare. For example, the regional level is responsible for caring for the elderly, outpatient, school health, and patients battling a chronic disease. The government and the citizens share the cost for mostly all services, but all residents have access to healthcare services. The longevity for both men and women is increasing. The average lifespan for a women is 84 years and 80 for men. In addition, they have the lowest maternal mortality; less than four women out of 100,000 die each year (“Health”).

In Europe, Luxembourg has one of the best financed healthcare systems in the country. The system is funded by sickness funds covering all citizens. Sickness funds are financed from a set taxation on every citizen’s income. Initially, the patient pays for the care, unless they are unemployed, students, children, or unable to afford the costs. Later the receipts are analyzed by the government and reimbursements of 80 to 100 percent will be given to the patient (“Overview”). According to United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund, UNICEF, whose main mission is to aid in the development and health of women and children in all countries, recently ranked health indicators of Luxembourg. They are number one for neonatal mortality rate, number two for infant mortality rate, less than one percent of the population lives with HIV, 99 percent of the country is immunized and drinking water and sanitation is accessible in all communities (“Statistics” chart 1,2,3).

Seeing other countries have success from Universal Coverage shows it is possible for the United States to have that same success. United States is being controlled by the dollar amounts, but the focus needs to be on the health of the country. Health insurance is important and is worthy of discussion because most people need continuous care to maintain a healthy lifestyle. When there is unexpected health issues, health insurance can assist in decreasing the financial burden, but without any guarantee of a secure system, people will not have a chance of protection.

It is important to understand that having access to healthcare is a basic human right that all deserve. It should not be based on income or social status, but on matter everyone is human and should be treated as one. Robin Beaton, a registered nurse of thirty years, was dying from aggressive breast cancer, but her chance of survival was high with surgery. Three days before her operation, her insurance company called denying approval. A year before the surgery Robin had seen a Dermatologist for acne. The doctor had written “precancerous” on her chart. A full blown medical history was investigated by the insurance company, and decided she had not disclosed all information. Her weight was incorrect, and her pre-existing heart medication was not correctly recorded. Her surgery was denied. Four months later with the help with a local attorney she was granted permission to receive surgery, but by this time her tumor had grown 5 centimeters (Keck). Robin was one of the lucky ones, unlike Natline Sarksyan. A few hours before Cigna reversed it’s decision to allow life saving transplant, she had already passed (Chen).

Universal healthcare is shamed by medical business and ideologues who want the government to be out of their life, but shouldn’t the concern be about the accessibility and affordability of maintaining one’s health rather than keeping the government out of citizens lives? Universal Health Coverage is a way to give everyone access they deserve, but the United States still denies healthcare for all. Amaryta Sen and Thomas Lamount put Universal Health Coverage into perspective when they published, “It is one thing to accept that the world may not have the resources and dexterity at this moment to provide the finest of medical care to all, but that is not a reason for eliminating our search for ways of proceeding towards just that, nor a ground for refusing to provide whatever can be easily provided right now.” It may be too late for Natline, but the United States has time to save lives. The focus needs to on the disparities instead of politics, until people come together as one in agreement to preserve human life, death and pain will persevere.

 

Work Cited

“Canada’s Healthcare System Bad Model for United States to Follow.” Hospital Topics, vol. 68, no. 2, Spring 1990, p.44. EBSCOhost.

Chen, Pauline W. “When Insurers Put Profits Between Doctor and Patient.” The New York Times, 05 Jan. 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/06/health/views/06chen.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0.

“The Consequences of Being Uninsured.”  National Immigration Law Center, Aug. 2014, www.nilc.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/consequences-of-being-uninsured-2014-08.pdf

“Health Care in Sweden.” Sweden , Swedish Institute , 16 May 2016, sweden.se/.

Keck, Kristi. “Cancer Patient Tells of Rips in Health Insurance Safety Net.” CNN, 16 June 2009, http://www.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/06/16/health.care.hearing/.

Kodjak, Alison. “Medical Bills Still Take A Big Toll, Even With Insurance.” NPR, 08 Mar. 2016, http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2016/03/08/468892489/medical-bills-still-take-a-big-toll-even-with-insurance.

“National Health Expenditures 2015 Highlights.” Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Jan. 2016, http://www.cms.gov/research-statistics-data-and-systems/statistics-trends-and-reports/nationalhealthexpenddata/downloads/highlights.pdf.

“Overview of the Healthcare System in Luxembourg.” HealthManagement, 07 Mar. 2017, healthmanagement.org/c/hospital/issuearticle/overview-of-the-healthcare-system-in-luxembourg.

Sack, Kevin. “From the Hospital to Bankruptcy Court.” The New York Times, 24 Nov. 2009, www.nytimes.com/2009/11/25/health/policy/25bankruptcy.html

Sanger-Katz, Margot. “Even Insured Can Face Crushing Medical Debt, Study Finds.” The New York Times, 05 Jan. 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/2016/01/06/upshot/lost-jobs-houses-savings-even-insured-often-face-crushing-medical-debt.html

Sen, Amartya, and Thomas W. Lamount. “Harvard Public Health Review.” Universal Health Care: The Affordable Dream | Harvard Public Health, 2015, harvardpublichealthreview.org/universal-health-care-the-affordable-dream/.

Squires, David, and Chloe Anderson. “U.S. Health Care from a Global Perspective.” The Commonwealth Fund, 08 Oct. 2015, http://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/issue-briefs/2015/oct/us-health-care-from-a-global-perspective

“Statistics.” UNICEF, 27 Dec. 2013, http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/luxembourg_statistics.html.

Tanner, Michael D. “Universal Health Care Not Best Option.” Cato Institute, 23 Feb. 2009, http://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/universal-health-care-not-best-option.

“2015 Employer Health Benefits Survey – Summary Of Findings.” The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 22 Sept. 2016, kff.org/report-section/ehbs-2015-summary-of-findings/.

“Universal Health Coverage (UHC).” World Health Organization, Dec. 2016, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs395/en/.

“U.S. Spends More on Health Care Than Other High-Income Nations But Has Lower Life Expectancy, Worse Health.” The Commonwealth Fund, 08 Oct. 2015, http://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/press-releases/2015/oct/us-spends-more-on-health-care-than-other-nations.

Whitacker, Ryan. “How Much Universal Healthcare Would Cost in the US.” Decision Data, 11 Nov. 2015, decisiondata.org/news/how-much-single-payer-uhc-would-cost-usa/.

 

 

 

 

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14 Comments Add yours

  1. ericksells says:

    I would completely agree that people only believe violence is increasing because there is so much social media and global interaction. It would be interesting to see statistics of violence that compare the 1940s-50s to now.

    Like

  2. I believe that it is not as much physical violence that is increasing, but rather the mental and cyber parts. It would be impossible to go around today and not hear about someone committing suicide due to bullying. You are right, the violence is getting out of hand.

    Liked by 1 person

  3. shaben17 says:

    I think that this phenomenon has an interesting connection with the fake news and sensationalism that are so easily spread by social media. It would be interesting to see why people share information that is objectively false, and how that affects the world.

    Liked by 1 person

  4. koecou says:

    We’re putting a huge amount of stress on our Earth, and therefore on the populations. (Personally, I’m thinking of REALLY crowded & heavily overpopulated countries.) What effect does our exponentially increasing population have on violence?

    Like

  5. mulkay says:

    I am conflicted with this topic. I understand that violence is statistically decreasing, but I feel that today’s acts of violence are more horrific than in the past. For this reason I think many people feel violence is increasing.

    Like

  6. I definitely agree with the idea that this stuff has always been happening, but it’s only being heard about now because of social media

    Like

  7. All over the news, all I hear about is how violence, shootings, and terrorism is killing basically everyone. But in reality, I wonder if there is a different agenda the media to pushing in order to cover up something more important and necessary for another reason.

    Like

  8. dunnumpaige says:

    The media only wants to publicize the negative events because people are more interested in drama than anything else.

    Like

  9. nollabby says:

    I know that a lot of the blame goes to media and violent video games for the increase in violence. Is there an effective way to reduce this violence?

    Like

  10. knutsjes000 says:

    I would agree that media portrays our society more violent now than it was in the past. It would be interesting to read statistic comparing now to past decades.

    Like

  11. katiekrien says:

    Violence is an issue, and I believe that media is making it seem like violence is increasing. Media has such power in this society, and I hate how they can construe the news.

    Like

  12. trautmanemily says:

    I agree media is totally to blame. They blow things way out of proportion.

    Like

  13. burkhardt.carlie says:

    I agree that social media is the culprit. Violence may be increasing right now, but I don’t think it is increasing much more than it has been in the past. Social Media is covering more and making a bigger deal of the events.

    Like

  14. huntermolly123 says:

    What are the differences between countries like the United States who are super involved in social media and countries that do not have internet or a lot of internet access?

    Like

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