Alivia Kistler

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My topic is the lack of diversity in the media because I find that I think it is very important to have everyone’s story out in the world. We can’t do that if the media is dominated by a small group of people.

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Part 1

I am a female high school senior of Caucasian decent. Daily I am exposed to some variety of media. Whether it be a Netflix show, an advertisement on the internet, or a video watched in a classroom. It is easy to see who is on our screens and who is absent. I feel that too many groups of people are not present in our modern media. I will be exploring the impacts of representation in media as well as the ways to incorporate diversity and the statistics of representation in today’s media.

Part 2

The term “media” refers to the primary means of mass communication. Specific media outlets are the internet, publication, and broadcasting. Diversity is the state of being diverse which means to show a great deal of variety. The type of diversity discussed in this paper will refer to including people from every ethnicity, race, and gender. Often, the terms ethnicity and race are confused with each other. Ethnicity is the fact or state of belonging to a social group that has a common national or cultural tradition. Race is a group of people who share certain distinctive physical characteristics such as, facial structure or skin color. Ones race could be Caucasian but their ethnicity could be French, Canadian, or German. Gender is defined as the state of being male or female. The final term is population, and this means all inhabitants of a town, area, or country. The population of the entire United States is what will be specifically referenced in this paper.

Part 3

Today many American’s stand behind the opinion that modern media is not inclusive in their casting and production roles. The opposing opinion to this is that media’s diversity has been the same since the origins of film and media is as representative as it should be; the government should not step in to set numbers of varying ethnicities and genders.

Katherine W. Phillips’ makes this statement in her Scientific America article: “Research has shown that social diversity in a group can cause discomfort, rougher interactions, a lack of trust, greater perceived interpersonal conflict, lower communication, less cohesion, more concern about disrespect, and other problems” (Phillips par. 5). Within her article she states both opinions on media diversity, and uses this quote as her focus. This quote is the general reasoning of the people who hold the opinion that diversity in the media is not needed. Carey Martell writes about America’s hiring process and comments that people should hire others based on skill level: not on their identity. Equality within different career fields does not mean that an equal number of men and women are employed in it. She continues her statement by bringing up the argument that more men are directors, actors, or cinematographers and says this accusation holds no merit. Though more men hold occupations in the film industry discrimination is not present in this situation. Everyone has an equal opportunity to be hired for a role or a directing position, but certain people are chosen over others because they have a hire skill level, or have the attribute that a director or role is looking for. Due to the equal opportunity already existing in the film industry amount actors “what these women want is not equality. They already have equality. What they want is inequality; they want opportunities to be given to them largely on the basis of their gender, and they use irrational arguments to justify the existence of a non-existent problem” (Martell par. 7). This statement could be related to Nellie Andreeva’s opinion on the film industry and the presence of African American actors. Andreeva has found that many roles, both in film and in television, originally written for Caucasian actors are now being rewritten for ethnic actors. She says, “Instead of opening the field for actors of any race to compete for any role in a color-blind manner, there has been a significant number of parts designated as ethnic this year, making them off-limits for Caucasian actors” (Andreeva par. 13). One example she gives is the new show Broad Squad. This show is about the historical first all female police force in Boston during the 1970s, and Andreeva states that one of the four main leads was cast as black which is historically inaccurate. She is able to make this accusation because she found a photograph of the original graduation ceremony of the first all women class at the Boston Police Academy and each student is Caucasian. A role in a historical film must go to the actor who best represents that role. Directors would not cast a white actor for an African American role. Attorney Abdul-Hakim Shabazz would agree with the fact that roles should not be given to people based on their race. He states in his article that diversity does not come from the color of ones skin as their values and outlooks on life could be exactly the same. Shabazz comments on he- an African American- and his college friend’s- a Caucasian- dynamic in their friendship from the point of view from a diversity advocate: “Had the “diversity” crowd put us together in the classroom, they would have been happy with “diversity” because he was white with long hair and I was black with a Jheri curl. Never mind that we had similar views on the major issues of the day” (Shabazz par. 7). This situation completely reflects Shabazz’s opinion on diversity. Putting a wide variety of races in media does not guarantee a wide variety of view points. View points, or what we are hearing on television, is as important, or more, than who we are seeing on television. He would also agree with Carey Martell’s view point that skill level out weights appearance as he brings up Melissa Harris Perry’s career. Perry quit her broadcast position because she felt that she was not being taken seriously. Shabazz says that her feeling this way had nothing to do with her being African American or female, but had to do with her character and skill as a television personality. Skill level and opinions have no race or gender, according to Shabazz and Martell.

The variety of ideas within a common perspective keep people thinking about their opinions on a subject. By learning what others think society can become more understanding of other humans on the planet. This viewpoint provokes an interesting idea about what diversity actually is. It is much easier to hire people who appear diverse from each other but what their beliefs  and work ethic are is where the actual diversity comes from. That is a personal take away from this viewpoint. Now, the speculation of the importance of character and skill level over gender and ethnicities is in consideration.

Works Cited

Phillips, Katherine W. “How Diversity Makes Us Smarter.” Scientific America. Nature       America Inc, 1 Oct. 2014. Web. 1 Mar. 2017.

Shabazz, Abdul-Hakim. “‘Diversity’ is About Thought and Opinion, Not Race.” Indianapolis Business Journal. ePublishing, 12 Mar. 2016. Web. 27 Feb. 2017.

Andreeva, Nellie. “Pilots 2015: The Year of Ethnic Casting.” Deadline. Penske Business Media, 24 Mar. 2015. Web. 27 Feb. 2017.

Martell, Carey. “The Flawed Arguments About Female Discrimination in the Film Industry.” Carey Martell. Carey Martell, 3 Aug. 2016. Web. 27 Feb. 2017.

Part 4

Lack of diversity is the most prominent problem within the media industry, is the opinion many Americas hold. This perspective would agree that “we are all human” and deserve to be represented in the media (Fallon par. 19). Everyone’s story deserves to be told. Seeing new viewpoints in our media helps development in life. It should be recognized that inclusion has improved over the years, but things are not yet equal. Another issue within the diversity issue is how the now diverse characters are being portrayed in their roles.

A study conducted by Stacy L. Smith, Marc Choueiti, and Katherine Pieper, at the USC Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism, reveals the statistics of the representation throughout all sources of media. This study looked at thousands of television shows and movies in all media categories: film, broadcast, cable, and streaming. For this study, 11,306 characters were assessed. Inclusion of female speaking characters totaled to only 33.5% in media overall, which means that 3,781 of the 11,306 speaking characters were female. The percentages were even lower for the race/ethnicity section of their study. Representation for race/ethnicity breaks down to: Caucasian, 71.7%, African American, 12.2%, Hispanic or Latino, 5.8%, Asian, 5.1%, Middle Eastern, 2.3%, and other races/ethnicities total 3.1%. Official findings from study concluded that “most stories fail to reflect or match the demographic composition of the U.S.” (Smith, Choueiti, Pieper 7).

Women make up half of the United States’ population, but merely a third of the media population. In addition, when women are present in American media they are often cast as a sexualized character. Of the female characters analyzed in the Annenberg study 11.6% of them were referred to as physically attractive and only 3.5% of male characters were, 34.3% female characters also have a nude scene and only 7.6% of male characters do (Smith, Choueiti, Pieper 3). Actresses are cases as “the girlfriend, the mother or the wife. Their value is determined in relation to the people they bed, marry or birth” (Lang par. 2).

Progress has been made, however, because “a decade ago, nonwhite characters on TV were vanishingly rare; now they appear on almost every show.” (D’Addario par. 6). Today there are set requirements for hiring actors for roles in television and film. The requirements are in place to make sure that diversity is present. Why is including women or people of color in media so difficult that a quota must be met?

The problem with the seemingly forced integration of ethnic actors usually ends up with them being “props, existing mostly to support white leads or to directly address race” (D’Addario par. 6). To put ethnic actors in a television show or film does improve diversity but does nothing for equality. Diversity and equality truly go hand in hand in the media. Lately more films such as “Selma” or “Hidden Figures”  have featured African American characters, but a common factor is present in these films. They are historical fact based films so they would be inaccurate if African Americans were not present. While it is great that people of color are being represented and untold stories are now rising to the surface, this is an issue as people should be represented in stories that don’t specifically pertain to that race. Ethnic actors should be cast for a role that was not written for any specific race or gender.

The media industry must remember who their audience is; America is a diverse country full of people from every “gender, ethnicity, language, religion, age, ability, socio-economic status” and countless other groups (Korn par. 5). This country’s media platforms should reflect that. The media’s purpose is to entertain and tell stories. Society becomes dull when the same stories are told by similar looking people. Michelle Sanches discusses the overall importance of diversity in the media in her article, “Why Diversity in the Media is Important”. Sanchez states, “We are so affected by media, from movies to social apps, they all have had some type of impact on our lives, and now there is a new generation growing up in a society that holds those things in high importance” (Sanchez, par. 2). Technology allows society to experience the media, and with each generation more technology is being integrated into their lives. Children grown up with television and film nowadays, and seeing themselves on their screens helps them be accepting of themselves. Freshman in college, Simone Ritchie, remembers that growing up she would draw herself with blonde hair, even though she did not have that shade of hair, because the girls on television had blonde hair. Ritchie feels that “if the movies and TV shows I watched showed a more accurate representation of who I was, I might have been more willing to embrace who I was at a younger age” (Heusinkved, par. 9). This goes along with what Tate Sheppard, freshman at the University of Minnesota says, “Everyone should have characters or images they can relate to. It’s part of how we understand ourselves” (Heusinkveld, par. 7). Every child should have the privilege of seeing themselves on their screens. A study was conducted on the self-esteem levels of high school aged adolescents from varying races and ethnic groups, and the results showed that Hispanic and Latino teenagers have lower self-esteem than Caucasian teens and Asian teenagers have the lowest of all races. This study also looked into self-esteem levels based on gender, and males had a slightly higher self-esteem level (Bachman, O’Malley, et all. par. 4). The result’s percentages coincide with the percentages of representation in media.

The issue has been identified for this viewpoint, and Elena Korn gives direction to how media’s diversity could improve: “It begins with Hollywood at large; we need the compelling films that represent our country…and before that, we need the artists, creators, actors and actresses to have access to the resources, encouragement and acknowledgment that white creators do” (Korn par. 4). She would agree with every other person who holds the ‘not enough diversity’ view point, and then states how to combat the lack of diversity and abundance of inequality in the industry. Diversity is a problem and can be fixed with Elena Korn’s idea of giving all creators and actors equal opportunities while also “decide on target inclusion goals. Make these public and transparent to allow for external accountability” (Smith, Choueiti, Pieper 17). Companies should also “recognize and alter stereotypical thinking and imagine counter-stereotypical examples before making a hiring decision or finalizing a script” (Smith, Choueiti, Pieper 17). Doing this would  Holding industries accountable for their hiring and representation will result in more gender and race/ethnic balanced and accurate media. If efforts are such as these are made they will “alter the landscape of cinema and media by supporting the next generation of filmmakers who reflect the real diversity of our American public.” (Korn par. 4). Overall, progress has been made, but there is still a ways to go for true diversity equality in the media.

Works Cited

Bachman, Jerald G., O’Malley, Patrick M., et al. “Adolescents Self-Esteem: Differences by Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age.” National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 23 Jan. 2011. Web. 8 Mar. 2017.

D’Addario, Daniel. “There’s No Such Thing as ‘Too Much Diversity’ on TV.” TIME. TIME, Inc, 23 Sept. 2016. Web. 28 Feb. 2017.

Fallon, Kevin. “Is Diversity on TV Really Getting Better?” The Daily Beast. The Daily Beast Company, 5 Aug. 2016. Web. 7 Mar. 2017.

Heusinkveld, Olivia. “Why Does Media Representation Matter?” The Wake. University of Minnesota, 23 Mar. 2015. Web. 8 Mar. 2017.

Korn, Elena. “Diversity in Media Representation: An Ad Council Perspective on the 2017 Oscar Nominations.” AdLibbing. AdCouncil, 3 Feb. 2017. Web. 28 Feb. 2017.

Lang, Brent. “Study Finds Fewer Lead Roles for Women in Hollywood.” Variety. Penske Business Media, 9 Feb. 2015. Web. 8 Mar. 2017.

Smith, Stacy L. PhD, Choueiti, Marc, and Pieper, Katherine PhD. Inclusion or Invisibility? Los Angeles: University of Southern California, 2016. Print. 22216.

Final Paper

Lack of Diversity in American Media

Lack of diversity is the most prominent problem within the media industry today. America’s screens have a predominant number of white men, and it often seems that media companies forget everyone’s story deserves to be told. Admittedly, inclusion has improved over the years, however, the media’s representation is not yet where it should be. Where equality is present, the portrayal of diverse characters is an additional issue. I am a female high school senior of Caucasian descent. Daily, I am exposed to some variety of media. Whether it be a Netflix show, an advertisement on the internet, or a video watched in a classroom, it is easy to see who is on our screens and who is absent. I feel that too many groups of people are not present in our modern media. The term “media” refers to the primary means of mass communication. Specific media outlets that will be discussed are the internet, publication, and broadcasting. Diversity is the state of being diverse which means to show a great deal of variety. The term diversity in this paper will mean including people from every ethnicity, race, and gender. Often, the terms ethnicity and race are confused with each other. Ethnicity is the fact or state of belonging to a social group that has a common national or cultural tradition. Race is a group of people who share certain distinctive physical characteristics such as, facial structure or skin color. One’s race could be Caucasian but their ethnicity could be French, Canadian, or German. The term gender will also be brought up in this paper and gender is defined as the state of being male or female. This paper will explore the impacts of representation in media, ways to incorporate diversity, and how diverse characters are being portrayed.

A study conducted by Stacy L. Smith, PhD, Marc Choueiti, and Katherine Pieper, PhD, at the USC Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism, reveals the statistics of the representation throughout all sources of media. This study looked at thousands of television shows and movies in all media categories: film, broadcast, cable, and streaming. For this study, 11,306 characters were also assessed. Inclusion of female speaking characters totaled to only 33.5% in media overall, which means that 3,781 of the 11,306 speaking characters were female. The percentages were even lower for the race/ethnicity section of their study. Representation for race/ethnicity breaks down to: Caucasian, 71.7 percent, African American, 12.2 percent, Hispanic or Latino, 5.8 percent, Asian, 5.1 percent, Middle Eastern, 2.3 percent, and other races/ethnicities total 3.1 percent. Official findings from the study concluded that “most stories fail to reflect or match the demographic composition of the U.S.”(Smith, et al. 7).

The media industry must remember who their audience is; America is a diverse country full of people from every “gender, ethnicity, language, religion, age, ability, socioeconomic status” and countless other groups (Korn). This country’s media platforms should reflect that. The media’s purpose is to entertain and tell stories. Society becomes dull when the same stories are told by similar looking people. Michelle Sanchez discusses the overall importance of diversity in the media in her article. Sanchez states, “We are so affected by media, from movies to social apps, they all have had some type of impact on our lives, and now there is a new generation growing up in a society that holds those things in high importance”(Link to source). Technology allows society to experience the media, and with each generation, more technology is being integrated into their lives. Children grow up with television and film nowadays. Seeing themselves on their screens helps them be accepting of themselves. While seeing people who look different than them helps to expand their perspective on life at an early age, and could cause them to become more accepting in general. Simone Ritchie, Freshman in college, remembers that growing up she would draw herself with blonde hair, even though she had a darker hair color, because the girls on television had blonde hair. Ritchie feels that “if the movies and TV shows I watched showed a more accurate representation of who I was, I might have been more willing to embrace who I was at a younger age” (Heusinkveld).  Every child should have the privilege of seeing themselves on their screens. Tate Sheppard, Freshman at the University of Minnesota says, “Everyone should have characters or images they can relate to. It’s part of how we understand ourselves”(Heusinkveld).

A study was conducted on the self-esteem levels of high school aged adolescents from varying races and ethnic groups. Results showed that Hispanic and Latino teenagers have lower self-esteem than Caucasian teens, while Asian teenagers have the lowest self-esteem of all races. This study also looked into self-esteem levels based on gender, and males had a slightly higher self-esteem level (Bachman, et al.). The results percentages coincide with the percentages of representation in media.

Women make up half of the United States’ population, but merely a third of the media’s population. In addition, when women are present in American media they are often cast as a sexualized character. Sure movies sexualizing men such as Magic Mike exist, but comparatively men are far less sexualized than women. Of the female characters analyzed in the Annenberg study 11.6 percent of them were referred to as physically attractive and only 3.5 percent of male characters were, 34.3 percent of female characters also have a nude scene and only 7.6 percent of male characters did (Smith, et al. 3).

Strong female characters should be “changing girlhood and challenging tired stereotypes by not waiting for some guy to save the day” (Scott and Dargis). But where are they? Actresses are often cast as “the girlfriend, the mother or the wife. Their value is determined in relation to the people they bed, marry or birth” (Lang). The now diverse characters are being portrayed through stereotypical roles. Girls should grow up watching the strong girls who can stand up for themselves and not the ones who are non dimensional and cast to be the ‘pretty face’. Girls are just as interesting as boys.

Ethnic characters have a similar issue. Often the ethnic characters end up being “props, existing mostly to support white leads or to directly address race”(D’Addario). To put ethnic actors in a television show or film does improve diversity but does nothing for equality if they are portrayed unrealistically. Diversity and equality truly go hand in hand in the media. Lately, more films such as Selma or Hidden Figures feature African American characters, but a common factor is present in these films. These films are historical fact based so they would be inaccurate if African Americans were not present. While it is great that people of color are being represented and untold stories are now rising to the surface, this is an issue as people should be represented in stories that do not specifically pertain to that race. Actors should be cast for a role that was not written for any specific race or gender.

Progress has been made, however, because “a decade ago, nonwhite characters on TV were vanishingly rare; now they appear on almost every show” (D’Addario). Today there are set requirements for hiring actors for roles in television and film. The laws are in place to make sure that diversity is present. Requirements such as these greatly benefit the media’s diversity. However, why is including women or people of color in media so difficult that a quota must be met?

The opposing opinion to this is that media’s diversity has been the same since the origins of film and media is as representative as it should be; the government should not step in to set numbers of varying ethnicities and genders.

Katherine W. Phillips’ makes this statement in her Scientific America article: “Research has shown that social diversity in a group can cause discomfort, rougher interactions, a lack of trust, greater perceived interpersonal conflict, lower communication, less cohesion, more concern about disrespect, and other problems” (Link to source). Within her article she states both opinions on media diversity, and uses this quote as her focus. This is the general reasoning of the people who hold the opinion that diversity in the media is not needed.

Carey Martell writes about America’s hiring process and comments that people should hire others based on skill level: not on their identity. Equality within different career fields does not mean that an equal number of men and women are employed in it. She continues her statement by bringing up the argument that more men are directors, actors, or cinematographers and says this accusation holds no merit. Though more men hold occupations in the film industry, discrimination is not present in this situation. Everyone has an equal opportunity to be hired for a role or a directing position, but certain people are chosen over others because they have a higher skill level, or have the attribute that a director or role is looking for. Due to the equal opportunity already existing in the film industry amoung actors “what these women want is not equality. They already have equality. What they want is inequality; they want opportunities to be given to them largely on the basis of their gender, and they use irrational arguments to justify the existence of a non-existent problem” (Martell). Writer Nellie Andreeva would agree with Martell as she has found that many roles, both in film and in television, originally written for Caucasian actors are now being rewritten for ethnic actors. She says, “Instead of opening the field for actors of any race to compete for any role in a color-blind manner, there has been a significant number of parts designated as ethnic this year, making them off-limits for Caucasian actors” (Andreeva). One example she gives is the new show Broad Squad. This show is about the historical first all female police force in Boston during the 1970s, and Andreeva states that one of the four main leads was cast as black which is historically inaccurate. She is able to make this accusation because she found a photograph of the original graduation ceremony of the first all women class at the Boston Police Academy and each student is Caucasian. A role in a historical film must go to the actor who best represents that role. Directors would not cast a white actor for an African American role. Attorney Abdul-Hakim Shabazz would agree with the fact that roles should not be given to people based on their race. He states in his article that diversity does not come from the color of one’s skin as their values and outlooks on life could be exactly the same. Shabazz comments on he- an African American- and his college friend’s- a Caucasian- dynamic in their friendship from the point of view of a diversity advocate: “Had the “diversity” crowd put us together in the classroom, they would have been happy with “diversity” because he was white with long hair and I was black with a Jheri curl. Never mind that we had similar views on the major issues of the day” (Shabazz). This situation completely reflects Shabazz’s opinion on diversity. Putting a wide variety of races in media does not guarantee a wide variety of viewpoints. What we are hearing on television, is as important, or more, than who we are seeing on television. He would also agree with Carey Martell’s viewpoint that skill level outweighs appearance as he brings up Melissa Harris Perry’s career. Perry quit her broadcast position because she felt that she was not being taken seriously. Shabazz says that her feeling this way had nothing to do with her being African American or female, but had to do with her character and skill as a television personality. Skill level and opinions have no race or gender, according to Shabazz and Martell.

The variety of ideas within a common perspective keep people thinking about their opinions on a subject. By learning what others think, society can become more understanding of other humans on the planet. This viewpoint provokes an interesting idea about what diversity actually is. It is much easier to hire people who appear diverse from each other than by what their beliefs are and work ethic is where the actual diversity comes from. Maybe diversity does not have a face, but a personality. Both pro gender and ethnic/racial diversity and pro skill level and value diversity hold a common ground: diversity must be present in the media. The opposing viewpoints are not as opposite as they appear to be.

Though diversity has come a long way, Elena Korn gives direction to how media’s diversity could improve: “It begins with Hollywood at large; we need the compelling films that represent our country…and before that, we need the artists, creators, actors and actresses to have access to the resources, encouragement and acknowledgment that white creators do”. She would agree with every other person who holds the ‘not enough diversity’ viewpoint, and then states how to combat the lack of diversity and abundance of inequality in the industry. Diversity is a problem and can be fixed with Elena Korn’s idea of giving all creators and actors equal opportunities while also “decide on target inclusion goals. Make these public and transparent to allow for external accountability” (Smith, et al. 17). Companies should also “recognize and alter stereotypical thinking and imagine counter-stereotypical examples before making a hiring decision or finalizing a script” (Smith, et al. 17). Doing this would hold companies accountable for their hiring and representation which will result in more gender and race/ethnic balanced and accurate media.

If efforts such as these are made they will “alter the landscape of cinema and media by supporting the next generation of filmmakers who reflect the real diversity of our American public.” (Korn). The media has come a long way, but there is still a ways to go for true diversity and equality in the media.  

Works Cited

 

Andreeva, Nellie. “Pilots 2015: The Year of Ethnic Casting.” Deadline, Penske Business Media, 24 Mar. 2015, deadline.com/2015/03/tv-pilots-ethnic-casting-trend-backlash-1201386511/.

Bachman, Jerald G., O’Malley, Patrick M., et al. “Adolescents Self-Esteem: Differences by Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age.” National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 23 Jan. 2011, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3263756/.

D’Addario, Daniel. “There’s No Such Thing as ‘Too Much Diversity’ on TV.” TIME, 23 Sept. 2016, time.com/4505348/we-need-more-diversity-on-tv/.

Dargis, Manohla and Scott, A. O. “Sugar, Spice, and Guts.” The New York Times, 3 Sept. 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/07/movies/fall-arts-preview-representation-of-female-characters-in-movies-is-improving.html.

Heusinkveld, Olivia. “Why Does Media Representation Matter?” The Wake, 23 Mar. 2015, http://www.wakemag.org/sections/voices/why-does-media-representation-matter.

Korn, Elena. “Diversity in Media Representation: An Ad Council Perspective on the 2017 Oscar Nominations.” AdLibbing, AdCouncil, 3 Feb. 2017, http://www.adlibbing.org/2017/02/03/diversity-2017-oscar-nominations/.

Lang, Brent. “Study Finds Fewer Lead Roles for Women in Hollywood.” Variety, Penske Business Media, 9 Feb. 2015, variety.com/2015/film/news/women-lead-roles-in-movies-study-hunger-games-gone-girl-1201429016/.

Martell, Carey. “The Flawed Arguments About Female Discrimination in the Film Industry.” Carey Martell, 3 Aug. 2016, careymartell.com/2016/08/flawed-arguments-female-discrimination-film-industry/.

Phillips, Katherine W. “How Diversity Makes Us Smarter.” Scientific America, Nature America Inc, 1 Oct. 2014, http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-diversity-makes-us-smarter/.

Sanchez, Michelle. “Why Diversity In Media Is Important.” The Odyssey Online, 27 June 2016, http://www.theodysseyonline.com/why-diversity-in-media-is-important.

Shabazz, Abdul-Hakim. “‘Diversity’ is About Thought and Opinion, Not Race.” Indianapolis Business Journal, ePublishing, 12 Mar. 2016, http://www.ibj.com/articles/57592-lsquodiversityrsquo-is-about-thought-and-opinion-not-race?v=preview.

Smith, Stacy L., Choueiti, Marc, et al. Inclusion or Invisibility? Los Angeles: University of Southern California, 22216, 2016, annenberg.usc.edu/pages/~/media/MDSCI/CARDReport%20FINAL%2022216.ashx.